The Duchy of Mirandola was a state which existed in Italy from 1310 until 1711, centered in Mirandola (in what is now the province of Modena) and ruled by the Pico family.
The Pico were a noble family first known for one Hugh, a vassal of Matilda of Tuscany in the 11th century. In the following centuries, members of the family were podestà in Modena and Reggio Emilia, until, in 1311, Francesco Pico received by emperor Henry VII the fiefs of Quarantoli and San Possidonio in reward of his help during the war against the Este. In 1353 Paolo Pico obtained by the bishops of Reggio the fief of San Martino Spino, and in the following year emperor Charles IV freed the Pico from the dominance of the bishops, placing Mirandola directly under the imperial suzerainty.
In 1432 Giovanni Pico received by emperor Sigismund the title of count of Concordia.
The city was strongly fortified, and, in the course of the Italian Wars, it was allied with France. It was besieged two times by the Papal troops under Julius II (1511), who personally attacked its walls, and Julius III (1551–1552). In the second occasion, the fortress resisted successfully under the command of Ludovico Pico and Piero Strozzi. In 1597, after returning under the imperial umbrella, Mirandola obtained the title of city and the Picos were named princes of Mirandola and marquesses of Concordia. In 1617 Alessandro I was finally declared duke.
The main economical activities in Renaissance times were animal husbandry, agriculture and, starting from the 17th century, silk clothes. The duchy however suffered from internal crisis and the numerous military operations in the area, such as in 1630 when it was ravaged by the imperial troops.
The last lord was Francesco Maria Pico, who was charged with treason after having been forced to cede the fortress to the French. The duchy was acquired by the Duchy of Modena under the House of Este, who bought it for 175,000 golden doppie.
List of rulers
Lords of Mirandola
1311 - 1311: Francesco I
Lords of Mirandola and Concordia
1354 - 1399: Francesco II
1399 - 1429: Francesco III with Giovanni I and Aiace Pico
1429 - 1432: Francesco III with Giovanni I
Lords of Mirandola, Counts of Concordia
1432 - 1451: Francesco III with Giovanni I
1451 - 1461: Francesco III
1461 - 1467: Gianfrancesco I
1467 - 1499: Galeotto I (brother of philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola)
1499 - 1502: Gianfrancesco II
1502 - 1504: Federico I with Ludovico I
1504 - 1509: Ludovico I
1509 - 1511: Galeotto II
1511 - 1511: Gianfrancesco II
1514 - 1533: Galeotto II
Counts of Mirandola and Concordia
1533 - 1550: Galeotto II
1550 - 1558: Ludovico II
1568 - 1592: Galeotto III
1592 - 1596: Federico II
Princes of Mirandola, Marquises of Concordia
1596 - 1602: Federico II
1602 - 1619: Alessandro I
Dukes of Mirandola, Marquises of Concordia
1619 - 1637: Alessandro I
1637 - 1691: Alessandro II
1691 - 1708: Francesco Maria