Hlučín Region (Czech: Hlučínsko (familiarly Prajzsko), German: Hultschiner Ländchen, Polish: Ziemia hulczyńska) is a historically significant part of Czech Silesia, today a part of the Moravian-Silesian Region in the Czech Republic, named after its largest town Hlučín. Its area is 316.9 km2 (122.4 sq mi) and in 2001, it had about 73,914 inhabitants.
Archaeological finds suggest that the area was inhabited since 4500 - 2500 BC.
The medieval bishoprics of Olomouc and Wrocław both attempted to control it. In the end, Olomouc won the dispute and the area became part of the March of Moravia. In 1269, Hlučín belonged to the lands that were split off Moravia by King Ottokar II of Bohemia as the Duchy of Opava, ruled by his illegitimate son Duke Nicholas I. Differences in culture, traditions, and economic development from the rest of Moravia grew during the time, mainly caused by Germanisation in the course of the Ostsiedlung. From 1526 onwards, the Duchy of Troppau together with the Lands of the Bohemian Crown was part of the Habsburg Monarchy.
The history of Hlučínsko as an entity began with the Treaty of Breslau signed on 11 June 1742 between King Frederick II of Prussia and Empress Maria Theresa of Austria. In 1740, Prussia started the First Silesian War and conquered most of Silesia. According to the terms of the treaty, the Duchy of Troppau was partitioned; while the lands south of the Opava River remained with Austrian Silesia, the northern part around Hlučín fell to Prussia and was incorporated into the Province of Silesia in 1815.
With Prussia part of the German Empire from 1871 onwards, the area after the German defeat in World War I became the site of an international dispute, as it was inhabited by a majority of Czech-speaking people. On February 4, 1920, Hlučínsko was handed over without a referendum to Czechoslovakia, according to Art. 83 of the Treaty of Versailles, though surveys suggested that its people felt more as Upper Silesians, and mostly would have preferred to join the Weimar Republic. Czechoslovak troops and authorities did not receive the friendly reception they had expected as "liberators". When the Czechs moved into Deutsch-Krawarn, the whole population was in the streets singing in unison the Deutschlandlied. Minor border corrections followed in the next few years.Even though the German-speakers of the region were officially protected in their rights by the Czechoslovak state, repressions regarding language policy and schooling in German were instituted. The enforcement of a Czech identity on the citizens rather raised public opposition.On 1 October 1938, Hlučínsko was occupied by Nazi Germany as a part of areas lost by Czechoslovakia in accordance with the Munich Agreement. However, as distinct from other lost Czechoslovakian domains, it was not attached to the Reichsgau Sudetenland, but again to the Prussian Province of Silesia (Upper Silesia from 1941).
After the Second World War, Hlučínsko, like the rest of the Sudetenland, returned to Czechoslovakia, but, unlike the millions of other German-speakers in the country, the region was spared a mass expulsion, and only 3000 citizens had to emigrate.
In the 1993 dissolution, it became part of the Czech Republic.
Today, a sizeable fraction of the region's citizens are bi-nationals also having a German citizenship.
Towns are shown in bold.
Bělá (Bielau) - Bohuslavice (Buslawitz) - Bolatice (Bolatitz) - Darkovice (Groß Darkowitz) - Dolní Benešov (Beneschau) - Hať (Haatsch) - Hlučín (Hultschin) - Hněvošice (Schreibersdorf) - Chlebičov (Klebsch) - Chuchelná (Kuchelna) - Kobeřice (Köberwitz) - Kozmice (Kosmütz) - Kravaře (Deutsch Krawarn) - Ludgeřovice (Ludgierzowitz) - Markvartovice (Markersdorf) - Oldřišov (Odersch) - Píšť (Pyschcz / Sandau) - Rohov (Rohow) - Služovice (Schlausewitz)- Strahovice (Strandorf) - Sudice (Zauditz) - Šilheřovice (Schillersdorf) - Štěpánkovice (Schepankowitz) - Třebom (Thröm) - Velké Hoštice (Groß Hoschütz) - Vřesina (Wreschin) - Závada (Zawada bei Beneschau)
These municipalities cooperate in microregion Sdružení obcí Hlučínska since 1992.
Also, the former municipalities of Malé Hoštice (Klein Hoschütz), now district of Opava, and Hošťálkovice (Hoschialkowitz), Lhotka (Ellguth), Petřkovice (Petershofen), Koblov (Koblau) and Antošovice (Antoschowitz), now districts or parts of Ostrava, once belonged to the region.
Hlučínsko lies between the Beskids (east) and Hrubý Jeseník (west). The Opava River flows through Hlučínsko. The area attracts tourists, especially for its cycle trails. Many historical buildings, unique architecture, and folk customs are found there.
Its main attractions are:
Natural reservation Dařanec near Vřesina
Castles in Hlučín, Kravaře, Šilheřovice, Dolní Benešov, Velké Hoštice, Chuchelná and Oldřišov
Open-air museums in Bolatice and Kobeřice
Museum of the fortifications in Hlučín
Church buildings in Ludgeřovice, Hněvošice, pilgrimage place in Píšť
Hlučín Lake and other places for swimming