Lanškroun (Czech pronunciation: [ˈlanʃkroun]; German: Landskron) is a town in the Ústí nad Orlicí District in the Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 9,900 inhabitants. It lies on the border of the historical lands of Bohemia and Moravia.
The town was founded in the 13th century as the center of the estate of Lanškroun and Lanšperk. Until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy (the Austrian side after the Compromise of 1867), as the seat of the district Landskron in Bömen, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia. After 1919 it became part of Czechoslovakia. In 1938 it was occupied by German troops as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, according to the Munich Agreement.
On May 9, 1945, the day of the end of World War II in Europe, Soviet troops entered the city. On May 17, 1945, Czech partisan units held court in Landskron, and many Germans were tortured to death.Until the expulsion of most of the German speaking population from the Czechoslovakia in 1945 (see the Beneš decrets), the majority of population of the town had been German: in 1930, there were 6,497 inhabitants and among these 83% were German and 17% Czech. By now, most of the inhabitants are Czech people.
Jan Marek Marci (1595–1667), physician and scientist
Leo Herrmann (1888–1951), journalist and Zionist activist, founder of the Keren Hayesod
Jan Smejkal (born 1946), chess player
Roman Šebrle (born 1974), former world record holder in decathlon