Pudong

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Location
31°14'04"N
121°30'23"E
Country
 China
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Description

Pudong is a district of Shanghai located east of the Huangpu River across from the historic city center of Shanghai in Puxi. The name refers to its historic position as "The East Bank" of the Huangpu River, which flows through central Shanghai, although it is now administered as the Pudong New Area, a state-level new area which extends all the way to the East China Sea. The traditional area of Pudong is now home to the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and the Shanghai Stock Exchange and many of Shanghai's best-known buildings, such as the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Jin Mao Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center, and the Shanghai Tower. These modern skyscrapers directly face Puxi's historic Bund, a remnant of former foreign concessions in China. The rest of the new area includes the Port of Shanghai, the Shanghai Expo and Century Park, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai Pudong International Airport, the Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve, Nanhui New City, and the Shanghai Disney Resort.

History

Pudong—literally "The East Bank of the Huangpu River"—originally referred only to the less-developed land across from Shanghai's Old City and foreign concessions. The area was mainly farmland and only slowly developed, with warehouses and wharfs near the shore administered by the districts of Puxi on the west bank: Huangpu, Yangpu, and Nanshi. Pudong was originally established as a county in 1958 until 1961 which the county was split among Huangpu, Yangpu, Nanshi, Wusong and Chuansha County. On October 1, 1992 the original area of Pudong County and Chuansha County merged and established Pudong New Area. In 1993, the Chinese government set up a Special Economic Zone in Chuansha, creating the Pudong New Area. The western tip of the Pudong district was designated as the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and has become a financial hub of modern China. Several landmark buildings were constructed, including the Oriental Pearl Tower, and the supertall Jin Mao Building (420.5 m or 1,380 ft), Shanghai World Financial Center (494 m or 1,621 ft) and Shanghai Tower (632 m or 2,073 ft), the world's first trio of adjacent supertall skyscrapers. These buildings—all along Century Avenue and visible from the historic Bund—now form the most common skyline of Shanghai. On May 6, 2009, it was disclosed that the State Council had approved the proposal to merge Nanhui District with Pudong and comprise the majority of eastern Shanghai. In 2010, Pudong was host to the main venues of the Shanghai Expo, whose grounds now form a public park. Pudong New Area consist of the original Pudong County (northeastern portion of Shanghai County), Chuansha County, and Nanhui County.

Government

Districts of the Direct-Controlled Municipality of Shanghai are administratively on the same level as prefecture-level cities. However, the government of Pudong has a status equivalent to that of a sub-provincial city, which is a half-level above a prefecture-level city. This is due to Pudong's size and importance as the financial hub of China. The Pudong Communist Party Secretary is the top office of the district, followed by the district governor of Pudong. The Pudong party chief is customarily also a member of the Shanghai Party Standing Committee.On April 27, 2015, the People's Government of Pudong New Area is working with China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone Administrative Committee.

Demographics

Pudong is bounded by the Huangpu River in the west and the East China Sea in the east. Pudong is distinguished from Puxi ("West Bank"), the older part of Shanghai. It has an area of 1,210.4 square kilometres (467.3 sq mi) and according to the 2010 Census, a population of 5,044,430 inhabitants, 1.9 million more than in 2000. Currently, at least 2.1 million of residents of Pudong are newcomers from other provinces or cities in China.Pudong is the most populous district in Shanghai. According to the 2010 Census, it has 5,044,430 people in 1,814,802 families, around 1/4 of Shanghai's total population, an explosive growth since the last census thanks to immigrants. Pudong's resident population growth is well above national average because it is a popular immigration destination. The 2010 census shows a 58.26% increase in the last decade, or an annual pace of 4.7%. In particular, the district saw am immigration growth of 189.5%, or an annual pace of 11.22%. Excluding immigrants, the birth rate is 0.806% while the death rate is 0.729, resulting a net growth of 0.077%. The total fertility rate is 1.03, well below the replacement level. The district actually has a negative registered household population growth if immigrants are excluded, thus the growth is purely driven by immigration. The 2010 Census shows a population density of 3,909/km2. About 3/4 of the population live in the northern part and part of city center called "Northern Territory". 1/4 live in the "Southern Territory" that was the Nanhui District. The Northern Territory has a 6,667 population density, while the Southern Territory has 1,732/km2. Suburbs saw a greater increase in population during 2000–2010 with the help of the city's suburb expansion policy. Some counties in the traditional city center saw a population decrease.

Subdistricts and towns

* – Liuzao town merged into Chuanshaxin town. ** – Luchaogang town and Shengang Subdistrict merged and form Nanhui Xincheng town.

Education

Universities and higher education

Shanghai Maritime University Shanghai Dianji University Shanghai Fisheries University China Executive Leadership Academy in Pudong Fudan University in Zhangjiang New York University Shanghai ShanghaiTech University

Primary and secondary schools

Public schools: No. 2 High School Attached to East China Normal University Jianping High School Dongchang High School of ECNU Pudong Foreign Languages School of Shanghai International Studies UniversityInternational schools: Dulwich College Shanghai French School of Shanghai Pudong Campus Nord Anglia International School Shanghai Pudong German School Shanghai Pudong Campus Shanghai American School Pudong Campus Shanghai Japanese School (SJS) Pudong Campus (elementary and junior high), and SJS Senior High School Wellington College International Shanghai Concordia International School Shanghai Pudong Campus Other private schools: Shanghai Gold Apple Bilingual School Shanghai Shangde Experimental School Shanghai Pinghe School

Economy

With the Nanhui District merger in May 2009, the size of Pudong's economy grew. The district's 2015 gross domestic product amounts to an estimated 789.8 billion RMB (~US$113.5 billion), with services comprising 70% of economic output. Its GDP per capita in terms of purchasing power parity is approximately $50,783. The area is divided into four distinct economic districts. Apart from Lujiazui Trade and Finance Zone, there is Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, the largest free trade zone in mainland China covering approximately 10 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) in north-east Pudong. The Jinqiao Export Processing Zone is another major industrial area in Pudong covering 19 square kilometres (7.3 sq mi) Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park is a special area for technology-oriented businesses. The Pudong area continues to experience rapid development, especially in the commercial sector, with 1.3 million square meters of prime office space reaching completion in 2008, more than the previous two years combined. Pudong has also attracted considerable fixed asset and real estate investment, reporting 87.268 billion RMB in fixed asset investment and 27.997 billion RMB in real estate investment in 2008. The newest Disney resort, with a Disneyland included, is located in Pudong, which is open to tourists in June 2016.

Businesses

Bao Steel has its head office in the Bao Steel Tower (simplified Chinese: 宝钢大厦; traditional Chinese: 寶鋼大廈; pinyin: Bǎogāng Dàshà) in Pudong. Comac has its head office in Pudong. The headquarters of Yangtze River Express, a cargo airline, are in the Pufa Tower (浦发大厦; 浦发大廈; Pǔfā Dàshà) in Pudong.Hang Seng Bank has its mainland offices in the Hang Seng Bank Tower in Pudong. Kroll has an office in the Hang Seng Bank Tower. Google has its Shanghai offices in the Shanghai World Financial Center.

Transportation

The Shanghai Pudong International Airport opened its doors in 1999, shortening the travel time for visitors. In the same year, Line 2 of the Shanghai Metro commenced services. An extension brought the line further east, where it serves the airport. Other lines, namely Lines 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13 and 16 also have sections that serve parts of Pudong. A magnetic levitation train began operating in 2004, moving passengers between the airport and Longyang Road Metro station. Pudong is connected to Puxi by several tunnels and four major bridges. The first of these bridges were the Nanpu Bridge (1991) and the Yangpu Bridge (1993). The Xupu Bridge opened in 1996. The latest of these is Lupu Bridge, which is the world's second longest arch bridge and was completed in 2002. Currently there are five tunnels that link the two sides, Dapu Rd. Tunnel, the first tunnel across the Huangpu River, Yan'an Rd. Tunnel, running east–west, and Dalian Rd. Tunnel, running north–south, Fuxing Rd. Tunnel, complementing the Yan'an Rd. Tunnel, Waihuan Tunnel, one part of Shanghai Outer Ring Express. Two new tunnels linking Lujiazui to Puxi are under construction. Roads in Pudong have no particular longitudinal or latitudinal orientation. Major thoroughfares Pudong Avenue, Zhangyang Road and Yanggao Road run east–west until Yangpu Bridge before turning gradually to become north–south. Century Avenue crosses all three major roads and extends from Lujiazui to Century Park. Yanggao Road extends south to the A20, Shanghai's outer Ring road, which runs east–west from Xupu Bridge and then north–south beginning at the interchange near Renxi Village, when the east–west expressway turns into Yingbin Avenue, headed for Pudong International Airport.

Metro

Pudong is currently served by ten metro lines and one tram line operated by Shanghai Metro and one maglev line operated by Shanghai Maglev Train and one suburban line operated by China Railway: Line 2 - Lujiazui, Dongchang Road, Century Avenue 4 6 9 , Shanghai Science and Technology Museum, Century Park, Longyang Road 7 16 Maglev , Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Jinke Road, Guanglan Road, Tangzhen, Middle Chuangxin Road, East Huaxia Road, Chuansha, Lingkong Road, Yuandong Avenue, Haitiansan Road, Pudong International Airport Maglev Line 4 - Pudong Avenue, Century Avenue 2 6 9 , Pudian Road (4), Lancun Road 6 , Tangqiao Line 6 - Gangcheng Road 10 , North Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Hangjin Road, South Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Zhouhai Road, Wuzhou Avenue, Dongjing Road, Jufeng Road 12 , Wulian Road, Boxing Road, Jinqiao Road, Yunshan Road, Deping Road, Beiyangjing Road, Minsheng Road, Yuanshen Stadium, Century Avenue 2 4 9 , Pudian Road (6)), Lancun Road 4 , Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Linyi Xincun, West Gaoke Road 7 , Dongming Road 13 , Gaoqing Road, West Huaxia Road, Shangnan Road, South Lingyan Road, Oriental Sports Center 8 11 Line 7 - Houtan, Changqing Road 13 , Yaohua Road 8 , Yuntai Road, West Gaoke Road 6 , South Yanggao Road, Jinxiu Road, Fanghua Road, Longyang Road 2 16 Maglev , Huamu Road Line 8 - China Art Museum, Yaohua Road 7 , Chengshan Road 13 , Yangsi, Oriental Sports Center 6 11 , Lingzhao Xincun Station Line 9 - Shangcheng Road, Century Avenue 2 4 6 , Middle Yanggao Road, Fangdian Road, Lantian Road, Taierzhuang Road, Jinqiao, Jinji Road, Jinhai Road 12 , Gutang Road, Minlei Road, Caolu Line 11 - Disney Resort, Kangxin Highway, Xiuyan Road, Luoshan Road 16 , Yuqiao, Pusan Road, East Sanlin, Sanlin, Oriental Sports Center 6 8 Line 12 - Donglu Road, Jufeng Road 6 , North Yanggao Road, Jinjing Road, Shenjiang Road, Jinhai Road Line 13 - Shibo Avenue, Changqing Road 7 , Chengshan Road 8 , Dongming Road 6 , Huapeng Road, Xianan Road, Beicai, Chenchun Road, Lianxi Road, Middle Huaxia Road 16 , Zhongke Road, Xuelin Road, Zhangjiang Road Line 16 - Longyang Road 2 7 Maglev , Middle Huaxia Road 13 , Luoshan Road 11 , East Zhoupu, Heshahangcheng, East Hangtou, Xinchang, Wild Animal Park, Huinan, East Huinan, Shuyuan, Lingang Avenue, Dishui Lake Shanghai maglev train - Longyang Road 2 7 16 , Pudong International Airport 2 Zhangjiang Tram - Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park Station, Bibo Road-Gaoke Road Station, *Huatuo Road-Daerwen Road Station, Huatuo Road Keyuan-Road Station, Cailun Road-Jinke Road Station, Cailun Road-Halei Road, Gebaini Road-Libing Road, Ziwei Road-Gaosi Road, Gaosi Road-Zhangjiang Road, Zhangjiang Middle School, Guanglan Road-Zuchongzhi Road Station, Guanglan Road=Dangui Road Station, Dangui Road-Qingtong Road, Dangui Road-Zhangdong Road, Zhangdong Road–Jinqiu Road Pudong railway - Luchaogang, Situan
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